Even though there may be a deceiver of some sort, very powerful and very tricky, who bends all his efforts to keep me perpetually deceived, there can be no slightest doubt that I exist, since he deceives me; and let him deceive me as much as he will, he can never make me be nothing as long as I think I am something. Thus, after having thought well on this matter, and after examining all things with care, I must finally conclude and maintain that this proposition: I am, I exist, is necessarily true every time that I pronounce it or conceive it in my mind.
Some “Pathos” but emphasis is on “Logos ”—Appeal to logical reasoning and evidence (., Facts, Examples, Historical and Legal Precedents) “Ethos”—Appeal to writer’s or speaker’s character, credentials, trustworthiness “Ethos”— Appeal to writer’s or speaker’s credibility (more so than character); credibility is established through knowledge of subject matter and merits of reasons and factual evidence Persuasive texts may make an “argument,” but they don’t always include elements of a formal argument Include the following elements of Argument: Warrants (Statements about How Evidence Supports Claims) Backing (Support for Warrants) May not take opposing views into account Counterclaim (Opposing Argument) Rebuttals (Respond to and Try to Refute) Heart of Critical Thinking The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University is also a helpful resource for getting started with this type of writing, among other things. Writing at the next level for our students whether for college or for life, is argumentative. I would argue that all writing is argumentative — creating a solid thesis, and then defending it with evidence is an invaluable skill. We should know why we think what we think and be able to support that, not only with emotion, but with evidence.