Epicurus justice essay

Take the 'humans' out of this equation and there won't be a problem, yes dogs are persistant and some need to be monitered around small kids and physically removed at to normalize this type of behaviour and get it accepted by the population is what pedophiles do, I'm saddened that many people think this is all ok, that screwing horses is not that out there. These men are looking for a new thrill so molesting horses does it for them as holierthanthou puts it perfectly, these horses were trained to do this and obviously held in bondage to do as otherwise the horse would could imagine a horse would get pretty angry at being put in this position not turned on as some may think. Can't feel any compassion for the man who got ruptured and died, what did he expect?These men are basically animal rapists, what gives them the right to do this to another creature?The documentary concentrates on avoidance of the real issues of animal rape kind of making the whole subject even more elusive and possibly for some people enticing.

As for bodies (note the plural: Epicurus does not typically speak of matter per se) and void as the basic physical principles, the senses, Epicurus affirms, testify to the existence of bodies, and by calculation on the basis of the senses we infer the nature of what is invisible, for example the atoms ( LH 39). Here the reasoning is based on analogy: what is evident to our senses must be true on the microscopic level as well, at least in some respects. Void must exist, in turn, if bodies are to be able to move, as they are seen to do. Thus motion is the counterwitness to the non-existence of void — an indirect argument is required since one cannot perceive empty space. What is more, since bodies, being “full,” offer resistance and void, being empty, offers no resistance, they complement each other and exhaust the possibilities; hence it is impossible to conceive of anything besides these two principles, apart from things that are accidents of them — accidents that arise from unions of elementary bodies in the void. (Inconceivability is another tool in Epicurus' method of demonstration.) These elementary bodies, then, are the atoms, which are indivisible and inalterable, if things are not to dissolve into nothingness. The Letter to Herodotus is an epitome of Epicurean doctrine, and the arguments are crisp and abbreviated, but the reasoning is clear, and is confirmed by the more detailed treatment in Lucretius, which almost certainly follows Epicurus' On Nature (see Leone 2012). Epicurus appeals to some elementary intuitions concerning bodies and their movement through space in order to establish the structure of imperceptibly small things; he concludes that these must be inalterable if nature is not to dissolve into nothing (creation back out of nothing having already been eliminated by the argument cited above from regularity in generation); and the basic features of the atomic system are then in place. A similar appeal to the senses establishes the infinity of the universe, since what is finite must have an edge, and an edge is conceived in reference to something beyond it. But the universe — in Greek, the “all” — contains everything, and so there is nothing outside it by which to conceive an edge. Hence, it is infinite. And if the all is infinite, so is the void and the number of atoms as well, for otherwise atoms would be too widely dispersed ever to meet ( LH 41–42).

Epicurean psychology is thoroughly materialistic. It holds that sensations are caused by a continuous stream of films or "idols" cast off by bodies and impinging on the senses. All sensations are believed to be absolutely reliable; error arises only when sensation is improperly interpreted. The soul is regarded as being composed of fine particles distributed throughout the body. The dissolution of the body in death, Epicurus taught, leads to the dissolution of the soul, which cannot exist apart from the body; and thus no afterlife is possible. Since death means total extinction, it has no meaning either to the living or to the dead, for "when we are, death is not; and when death is, we are not."

writing an essay on "Epicurus theory of Justice" ... below are Epicurus' Principal Doctrines:

31. The justice which arises from nature is a pledge of mutual advantage to restrain men from harming one another and save them from being harmed.

32. For all living things which have not been able to make compacts not to harm one another or be harmed, nothing ever is either just or unjust; and likewise too for all tribes of men which have been unable or unwilling to make compacts not to harm or be harmed.

33. Justice never is anything in itself, but in the dealings of men with one another in any place whatever and at any time it is a kind of compact not to harm or be harmed.

34. Injustice is not an evil in itself, but only in consequence of the fear which attaches to the apprehension of being unable to escape those appointed to punish such actions.

35. It is not possible for one who acts in secret contravention of the terms of the compact not to harm or be harmed, to be confident that he will escape detection, even if at present he escapes a thousand times. For up to the time of death it cannot be certain that he will indeed escape.

36. In its general aspect justice is the same for all, for it is a kind of mutual advantage in the dealings of men with one another: but with reference to the individual peculiarities of a country or any other circumstances the same thing does not turn out to be just for all.

37. Among actions which are sanctioned as just by law, that which is proved on examination to be of advantage in the requirements of men's dealings with one another, has the guarantee of justice, whether it is the same for all or not. But if a man makes a law and it does not turn out to lead to advantage in men's dealings with each other, then it no longer has the essential nature of justice. And even if the advantage in the matter of justice shifts from one side to the other, but for a while accords with the general concept, it is nonetheless just for that period in the eyes of those who do not confound themselves with empty sounds but look to the actual facts.

Epicurus justice essay

epicurus justice essay

writing an essay on "Epicurus theory of Justice" ... below are Epicurus' Principal Doctrines:

31. The justice which arises from nature is a pledge of mutual advantage to restrain men from harming one another and save them from being harmed.

32. For all living things which have not been able to make compacts not to harm one another or be harmed, nothing ever is either just or unjust; and likewise too for all tribes of men which have been unable or unwilling to make compacts not to harm or be harmed.

33. Justice never is anything in itself, but in the dealings of men with one another in any place whatever and at any time it is a kind of compact not to harm or be harmed.

34. Injustice is not an evil in itself, but only in consequence of the fear which attaches to the apprehension of being unable to escape those appointed to punish such actions.

35. It is not possible for one who acts in secret contravention of the terms of the compact not to harm or be harmed, to be confident that he will escape detection, even if at present he escapes a thousand times. For up to the time of death it cannot be certain that he will indeed escape.

36. In its general aspect justice is the same for all, for it is a kind of mutual advantage in the dealings of men with one another: but with reference to the individual peculiarities of a country or any other circumstances the same thing does not turn out to be just for all.

37. Among actions which are sanctioned as just by law, that which is proved on examination to be of advantage in the requirements of men's dealings with one another, has the guarantee of justice, whether it is the same for all or not. But if a man makes a law and it does not turn out to lead to advantage in men's dealings with each other, then it no longer has the essential nature of justice. And even if the advantage in the matter of justice shifts from one side to the other, but for a while accords with the general concept, it is nonetheless just for that period in the eyes of those who do not confound themselves with empty sounds but look to the actual facts.

Media:

epicurus justice essay