Banksy is low profiled British graffiti artist whose identity used to be unknown. According to author and graphic designer Tristan Manco, "Banksy was born in 1974 and raised in Bristol, England. He was a son of a photocopier technician. He trained as a butcher but became involved in graffiti during the great Bristol aerosol boom of the late 1980s. His artworks are often satirical pieces of art on topics such as politics, culture, and ethics. His street art, which combines graffiti writing with a distinctive stenciling technique, is similar to Blek le Rat, who began to work with stencils in 1981 in Paris and members of the anarcho-punk band Crass who maintained a graffiti stencil campaign on the London Tube System in the late 1970s and early 1980s. His art has appeared in cities around the world. Banksy's work was born out of the Bristol underground scene which involved collaborations between artists and musicians. Banksy does not sell photos of street graffiti. Art auctioneers have been known to attempt to sell his street art on location and leave the problem of its removal in the hands of the winning bidder." (Wikipedia 13/08/10)
DJ Kool Herc 's house parties gained popularity and later moved to outdoor venues in order to accommodate more people. Hosted in parks, these outdoor parties became a means of expression and an outlet for teenagers, where "instead of getting into trouble on the streets, teens now had a place to expend their pent-up energy."  Tony Tone, a member of the Cold Crush Brothers , stated that "hip hop saved a lot of lives".  For inner-city youth, participating in hip hop culture became a way of dealing with the hardships of life as minorities within America, and an outlet to deal with the risk of violence and the rise of gang culture. MC Kid Lucky mentions that "people used to break-dance against each other instead of fighting".  [ full citation needed ] Inspired by DJ Kool Herc, Afrika Bambaataa created a street organization called Universal Zulu Nation , centered around hip hop, as a means to draw teenagers out of gang life, drugs and violence.