It was only after World War II, however, that the . became the focal point of new artistic movements.  The 1950s and 1960s saw the emergence of Abstract Expressionism , Color field painting , Pop art , Op art , Hard-edge painting , Minimal art , Lyrical Abstraction , Fluxus , Happening , Video art , Postminimalism , Photorealism and various other movements. In the late 1960s and the 1970s, Land art , Performance art , Conceptual art , and other new art forms had attracted the attention of curators and critics, at the expense of more traditional media.  Larger installations and performances became widespread.
Centered on the dialogues and publications of the French “philosophes” (Voltaire, Rousseau, Montesquieu, Buffon and Diderot), the High Enlightenment might best be summed up by one historian’s summary of Voltaire’s “Philosophical Dictionary”: “a chaos of clear ideas.” Foremost among these was the notion that everything in the universe could be rationally demystified and cataloged. The signature publication of the period was Diderot’s “Encyclopédie” (1751-77), which brought together leading authors to produce an ambitious compilation of human knowledge.