During the heyday of President Reagan's anticommunist foreign policy, certification sometimes seemed to reflect foreign policy positions unrelated to drug control. For example, in 1988, the only countries decertified were Iran, Syria, Afghanistan and Panama (Bagley 169). Despite this historical fact, certification was created as and remains a potential threat to countries not cooperating with . drug control programs, and is another element of the "stick" included in . policy. Although the state of a country's cooperation in drug control efforts provides the basis for the decision, funds allocated for counternarcotics are not necessarily affected by decertification. Whether a country is certified or not, it can still receive . drug control funds.