Pink salons are able to operate in Japan due to the country’s lax prostitution laws. Japan explicitly outlaws a person to pay for sexual intercourse, but its legal framework only punishes people for this offense. Officials in Japan cannot prosecute for the sale of other sexual services including but not limited to oral and anal sex. Brothel owners have capitalized on this legal loophole by operating pink salons offering legal fellatio service to paying customers. Through establishments like pink salons, prostitution in Japan has conformed to commodified sexual labor. These businesses operate within all guidelines present in their jurisdiction and create an employment relationship with their workers. This dynamic transforms once prostitutes into wage workers offering a personal service to their clients.
Was the Challenger explosion a “normal accident”? In a narrow sense, the answer is no. Unlike what happened at ., its explosion was caused by a single, catastrophic malfunction: the so-called O-rings that were supposed to prevent hot gases from leaking out of the rocket boosters didn’t do their job. But Vaughan argues that the O-ring problem was really just a symptom. The cause of the accident was the culture of NASA, she says, and that culture led to a series of decisions about the Challenger which very much followed the contours of a normal accident.