It is evident that magazines
for young men do include stereotypical images of both men and women. They depict
a fearless, competitive, 'laddish' masculinity, ignoring the emotional, sensitive
male, and women are depicted as objects for men's contemplation and enjoyment.
But it should be remembered that Stereotypes can be seen as an unavoidable part
of mass media representation. Further these magazines are merely trying to entertain
the reader, they are not seriously on a crusade to return to a pre-feminist ideal,
or to harm anyone in an attempt to provide entertainment. Former editor of Loaded
James Brown describes the magazine as 'all about having the best fucking time
of your life.'  Further, the inclusion of sexist material and stereotypical
images are enjoyable to the reader but are not likely to change their attitudes
towards society. The readers have the power to reject such material and are able
to make their own, individual meanings from the messages within men's magazines.
Therefore, men's magazines can be seen merely as entertainment for, and an escape
for, the heterosexual male.
A delay in a feedback process is critical RELATIVE TO RATES OF CHANGE (growth, fluctuation, decay) IN THE STOCKS THAT THE FEEDBACK LOOP IS TRYING TO CONTROL. Delays that are too short cause overreaction, “chasing your tail,” oscillations amplified by the jumpiness of the response. Delays that are too long cause damped, sustained, or exploding oscillations, depending on how much too long. At the extreme they cause chaos. Overlong delays in a system with a threshold, a danger point, a range past which irreversible damage can occur, cause overshoot and collapse.
Some historians maintain that the thought of the Maragheh observatory , in particular the mathematical devices known as the Urdi lemma and the Tusi couple , influenced Renaissance-era European astronomy, and thus was indirectly received by Renaissance-era European astronomy and thus by Copernicus .      Copernicus used such devices in the same planetary models as found in Arabic sources.  Furthermore, the exact replacement of the equant by two epicycles used by Copernicus in the Commentariolus was found in an earlier work by Ibn al-Shatir (d. c. 1375) of Damascus.  Ibn al-Shatir's lunar and Mercury models are also identical to those of Copernicus.